Present Continuous

I am doing

I am

He is
She is
It is

We are
You are
They are
I
I am watching tv
I am coming
I am cutting a tree
I am eating hoppers
I am not standing
I am not working
Am I not helping you?
He
He is wearing a watch.
He is cleaning the room
He is cooking rice
He is not teaching
He is not repairing the car –
Is he not talking to someone?
Is he going?
She
She is doing her homework
She is not driving.
She is writing a letter
She is dancing
Is she listening to the radio?
It
It is barking
It is not sleeping
It is flying
It is flying

We use ‘it’ when there is not a subject
It is raining
It is getting dark

Mother is going
The fire is spreading
We
We are having dinner
We are not studying
We are sleeping
We are laughing
Are we disturbing you
You
You are working hard
You are not thinking about it
You are crying
You are fighting
Are you sending letters?
Are you surfing the internet?
Are you crying?

The men are digging a hole
They
They are talking about the accident
They are reading books
They are running
They are not discussing the lesson
Are they not living there?
Are they reading books?

some spelling rules

“Y” does not change before ing
Hurry+ ing = Hurrying
Study+ ing = Studying
Play+ ing = Playing

If a verb ends in ie, ie changes to ‘y’
Die + ing = Dying
Lie + ing = Lying
If a verb ends in an “e” we remove
the ”e” and add ing.

live + ing = living
have + ing = having
make +ing = making
take + ing =taking
If the verb ends in a consonant + vowel + consonant,
we double the final consonant and add ing
stop + ing = stopping
sit + ing = sitting
plan + ing = planning
get + ing = getting
swim + ing = swimming
If a two-syllable verb ends in a consonant + vowel + consonant,
we do not double the final consonant when the stress
is on the first syllable.

happen + ing = happening
enter + ing = entering
offer + ing = offering
suffer + ing = suffering
But, we do not double the final consonant when the verb ends
in w, x, or y or when the final syllable is not emphasized.

fix + ing = fixing
enjoy + ing = enjoying
snow + ing = snowing

Have/Has

I have
You have
They have
We have
She has
He has
It has
Boy has
Boys have
We use” have” with I, you, they, we, and plural nouns, and we
use “has” with she, he, it, and singular nouns.
Affirmative
I have an old car.
She has a valuable watch.
We have a big house.
They have guns.
The boy has a bicycle.
My mother has a beautiful umbrella.
You have a kind heart.
Tom has a new laptop.
Negative
Do not have =don’t have/does not have= doesn’t have
I don’t have a girlfriend.
She doesn’t have enough money.
We don’t have a lot of friends.
He doesn’t have a family.
You don’t have a healthy body.
My sister doesn’t have a good job.
Interrogative
Do you have daughters?
Does it have big nails?
Do they have food?
Does he have a private jet?
Negative Interrogative
Don’t you have an idea about it?
Doesn’t she have long hair?

Verbs

List of irregular verbs

Infinitive                  past simple                   past participle
Be                             was/was                               been
Beat                             beat                             beaten
Become                             became                             become
Begin                             began                             begun
Bend                             bend                             bend
bet                             bet                             bet
bite                             bit                             bitten
Blow                             blew                             blown
Brake broke broken
Bring brought brought
Broadcast broadcast broadcast
Build built built
Burst burst burst
Buy bought bought
Catch caught caught
Choose chose chosen
Come came come
Cost cost cost
Creep crept crept
Cut cut cut
Deal dealt dealt
Dig dug dug
Do did done
Draw drew drawn
Drink drank drunk
Drive drove driven
Eat ate eaten
Fall fell fallen
Feed fed fed
Feel felt felt
Fight fought fought
Find found found
Flee felt felt
Fly flew flown
Forbid forbade forbidden
Forgive forgot forgotten
Freeze forgave forgiven
Get got got
Give gave given
Go went gone
Grow grew grown
Hang hung hung
Have had had
Hear heard heard
Hide hid hidden
Hit hit hit
Hold held held
Hurt hurt hurt
Keep kept kept
Kneel knelt knelt
Know knew known
Lay laid laid
Lead led led
Leave left left
Lend lent lent
Let let let
Lie lay lain
light lit lit
lose lost lost
make made made
mean ment ment
meet met met
pay paid paid
put put put
read read (red) read (red)
ride rode ridden
ring rang rung
rise rose risen
run ran run
say said said
see saw seen
seek sought sought
sell sold sold
send sent sent
set set set
sew sewed sewn/ sewed
shake shook shaken
shine shone shone
shoot shot shot
show showed shown/ showed
shrink shrank shrunk
shut shut shut
sing sang sung
sink sank sunk
sit sat sat
sleep slept slept
slide slid slid
speak spoke spoken
spend spent spent
spit spat spat
split split split
spread spread spread
spring sprang sprung
stand stood stood
steal stole stolen
stick stuck stuck
sting stung stung
stink stank stunk
strike struck struck
swear swore sworn
sweep swept swept
swim swam swum
swing swung swung
take took taken
teach taught taught
tear tore torn
tell told told
think thought thought
throw threw thrown
understand understood understood
wear wore worn
weep wept wept
win won won
write wrote written

Verb in a sentence

Cackle
They all cackled with delight.
Canter
we cantered along the beach.
Brained
He nearly brained himself on that low beam.
Intermarry
They were not forbidden to intermarry with the local people.
Encompass
The group encompasses all ages.
Depreciate
Shares continued to depreciate on the stock markets today.
Lather
I lathered my face and started to shave.
Soap does not lather well in hard water.
Jeer
The police were jeered at by the waiting crowd.
The players were jeered by disappointed fans.
Increase
The population has increased from 1.2 million to 1.8 million.
Influence
Her writings have influenced the lives of millions.
Don’t let me influence you either way.
Hem
The villagers are hemmed in on all sides by mountains.
He felt hemmed in by all their pretty rules and regulations.
Clutch
The child was clutching a doll in her hand.
Grip
She gripped her bag tightly and wouldn’t let go.
Squeeze
Ann took her hand and squeezed it.
He squeezed her hand and smiled at her.
Feature
Many of the hotels featured in the brochure offer a special deal on the weekend break.
Freak
My parents freaked when they saw my hair.
Snakes freak me out.
Estimate We estimated that would cost about one million.
It is estimated the project will last four years.
Guess
I don’t know, I’m just guessing.
We can only guess at her reason for leaving.
Leaven
His speech was leavened with a touch of humor.
Measure
A device that measures the level of radiation in the atmosphere.
He’s gone to be measured for a new suit.
It is difficult to measure the success of the campaign at this stage.
Realize
I didn’t realize you were so unhappy.
Only later did she realize the seriousness of this crime.
The moment I saw him, I realized something was wrong.
Stain
I hope it doesn’t stain the carpet.
They stained the floors dark brown.
This carpet stains easily.